Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) is a European Research Infrastructure for quantifying and understanding of the greenhouse gas emissions and sinks. ICOS Research Infrastructure consists of national networks in 12 countries, including ICOS Finland, as well as thematic centres focused on different aspects of atmospheric, ecosystem and aquatic studies and the top level organisation, ICOS-EU, which is coordinating the infrastructure. ICOS-EU head office is located in Finland and hosted together with France.
The ICOS network is using established routines and protocols for observations, and it produces long-term, continuous and high quality data for needs of research on climate change and biogeochemical cycles. All data produced within ICOS is quality controlled and will be freely, openly and easily available.
Important missions of ICOS are producing standardized high-precision long-term observational data, stimulating scientific studies and modelling efforts, providing a platform for data analysis and synthesis, and communicating science-based knowledge towards society and decision making. These are also impacts of ICOS Finland.
The role of ICOS Finland
ICOS Finland studies the sinks and sources of GHGs in typical boreal ecosystems focusing on coniferous forests and peatlands, but including also unique sites of a lake and an urban environment.
The Finnish partnership brings several advantages and added value for ICOS in expertise and areal coverage. The Finnish sites represent the boreal and sub-arctic Eurasian environments with both east-west and south-north transitions in eco-climatic features.
Atmospheric research is national priority research area in Finland. Large infrastructures in Finland for atmospheric research are in the forefront of research and technical development. The ICOS studies are closely linked with other trace gas and atmospheric aerosol research.
The Finnish partners are participating actively in several international monitoring and research projects and infrastructures, such as WMO Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW), the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), the Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmissions of Air Pollutants in Europe (EMEP) as well as GEOmon and FLUXNET networks.
ICOS Finland is also in close collaboration with the other ESFRI (the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) roadmap infrastructures in the environmental domain in Finland: ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research Infrastructure), eLTER (European Long-Term Ecosystem Research) and AnaEE (Infrastructure for Analysis and Experimentation on Ecosystems). Finnish partners are highly experienced in coordinating international and national research activities. For example, the international project office of iLEAPS (Integrated Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere Processes Study) and EUCAARI is located at the University of Helsinki, Department of Physics. University of Helsinki is also involved in coordinating the Nordic Centres of Excellences (BACCI, NECC, CRAICC) and Nordic Graduate School CBACCI.